P1. Biominerals and environmental mineralogy
Mineralogy Sustainability

Conveners: Fabio Bellatreccia [Università di Roma Tre], Giovanni De Giudici [Università di Cagliari], Francesco Di Benedetto [Università di Ferrara], Paola Di Leo [IMAA-CNR], Valerio Funari [ISMAR-CNR Bologna]

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Biominerals in recent decades have received growing interest from a large interdisciplinary scientific community. Biominerals play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycle of elements in the geological record. Thus, understanding (bio)mineralization processes in many different environments allows us to have a deep knowledge of natural risk, of the changes related to anthropic activities, of possible environmental resilience to such changes, and to provide tools for the risk assessment. Moreover, investigating (bio)minerals allows the development of technologies for environmental sustainability, and offers diverse and fairly numerous examples to devise useful biobased materials. This session is intended to strengthen the collaborative interaction among environmental mineralogists and is open to the whole scientific community interested in biominerals, sustainability and related technology development. The session acknowledges studies on biominerals at the molecular scale, the interface between minerals and organisms, the kinetics of (bio)mineral growth, communities of microbial and other organisms that individually or collectively drive biomineral processes. Moreover, this session invites contributions on minerals and their synthetic analogues relevant to the environment, biobased-environmental-technologies such as wetland systems, waste and water treatment, bio-metallurgy. Finally, investigations on biominerals relevant to health are also welcome.

P2. Medical geology: the impact of the natural environment on human and animal health

Conveners: Elena Marrocchino [Università di Ferrara], Chiara Telloli [ENEA Bologna], Daniela Piazzese [Università di Palermo], Paolo Censi [Università di Palermo]

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Lithosphere is the main natural element reservoir. Major, minor and trace elements are released from rocks to natural waters and soils. The trophic transfer of these chemicals along the trophic chain takes place throughout plants and animals up to interact with humans. Trophodynamics of elements requires some sort of camouflaging often controlled by crystal-chemical rules. Accordingly, nutrients are substituted by potentially toxic minor and trace elements during metabolic reactions. Throughout gastro-intestinal, pulmonary and dermal interfaces, these chemicals enter in organisms and then interact with humans. Medical Geology represents a fast-growing field of study addressed to investigate interface processes responsible for the element transfer along the trophic chain from Lithosphere to humans. This approach is often carried out according to instruments borrowed by Geochemistry, Geology and Environmental Chemistry. Accordingly, Medical Geology requires that health/environmental problems resulting by geological forcing are studied through an interdisciplinary approach by geoscientists, environmentalists, biologists and medical doctors. Medical geology is a useful contribution to train future generations of professionals to unravel the link between the natural environment and human health for the betterment of the global society. To solve this problem, it is necessary to develop effective approaches towards the interpretation of spatially related geochemical and medical information.

Cultural and geoheritage
P3. Geodiversity and geoheritage in the ecological transition: science, culture and sustainable development
Outreach and education Geomorphology

Conveners: Paola Coratza [Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia], Piero Gianolla [Università degli Studi di Ferrara], Marco Giardino [Università degli studi di Torino], Nereo Preto [Università degli Studi di Padova], Luisa Sabato [Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro ]

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The last two decades have shown that geodiversity and geoheritage-related research plays a crucial role within geosciences. However, despite the great improvement made, much work is yet to be done. A revision of geoheritage inventories is currently ongoing in Italy and Europe, for which a clear conceptual framework is needed. Meanwhile, institutions aimed at the valorization and conservation of geodiversity, e.g., UNESCO World Heritage Sites, UNESCO Geoparks and similar, have been recently created, and new ones are being planned or proposed. A common feature of these institutions is their management targeted at their sustainable development. This session aims to contribute to a current lively debate on which geodiversity elements should enter inventories, if and how sites in these inventories should be protected, and if and how they should be valorized, e.g., by promoting geotourism in the context of ecotourism. We wish to collect contributions on the compilation of inventories of geoheritage, on the institution and management of geoparks and similar sites, and in general any contribution that highlights the role of Geodiversity and Geoheritage in the ecological transition. Scientific issues and cultural challenges will emerge for engaging a fruitful discussion on the role of Geoscience within a sustainable development context.

P4. Learning from the past for a sustainable future: geosciences in/for cultural heritage
Cultural Heritage Archaeometry & Conservation Science

Conveners: Concetta Rispoli [Università di Napoli Federico II], Maria Cristina Caggiani [Università di Catania], Alessia Coccato [Università di Oxford]

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The research on geomaterials in cultural heritage (natural and artificial ones such as stones, mortars, ceramics, pigments, glass, etc…) is in constant evolution, focusing on the investigation of well-known as well as remote artworks or sites - monumental and archaeological - and opening questions addressable by means of a wide range of methodologies. Geosciences in cultural heritage can tackle many aspects, such as preventive maintenance, planning of conservation projects, study of artists technique and palette, retracing of historical trade routes, dating of artworks, investigation of technology of historical populations, etc… On the other hand, innovations in the application of geosciences for cultural heritage study are continuously developing. Analytical techniques and/or processing methods to obtain information are being implemented towards a minimally up to totally non-invasive approach. Moreover, digital access and presentation of objects and sites substantially increase accessibility of cultural heritage, promoting its valorisation. This session aims to stimulate discussions among the researchers involved in the interaction between geosciences and cultural heritage. It will collect the most recent updates including both case studies and research works, aimed to answer open research questions in the field.

P5. Geosciences for Cultural Heritage
Archaeometry Stratigraphy & Sedimentology

Conveners: Pierluigi Pieruccini [Università di Torino], Evdokia Tema [Università di Torino]

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Geosciences are nowadays widely applied to the study, monitoring, evaluation, conservation and fruition of the Cultural Heritage. This session solicits contributions from all the disciplines related to the Earth Sciences applied to natural and archaeological heritage sites and materials at different scales, from landscape to the microscope. Contributions of the most common geoscience fields applied to cultural heritage such as geology, geomorphology, geoarchaeology, geophysics, mineralogy, petrography and archaeometry are welcome. Particular interest will be given in interdisciplinary approaches integrating new experimental techniques, data acquisition and processing as well as case studies and innovative applications.

P6. Minerals, rock and museum: from collection to research in a post-pandemic world

Conveners: Giovanni Pratesi [Università di Firenze], Sabrina Nazzareni [Università di Perugia], Cristina Carbone [Università di Genova], Marco Merlini [Università di Milano], Germana Barone [Università di Catania]

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Museums and University geological collections are a hidden treasure to be supported and enhanced by the geological and naturalist community. The value of the geological collections is not limited to preserve important materials from historical or scientific point of view or from lost mining and geological localities, but should be the starting point to promote and communicate science and particularly geology. The collections are “archives of memory” of invaluable geological heritage and require appropriate conservation and protection, as well as laboratories to restore and study it, in order to preserve them for the future generations. For this reason, collections should also be constantly updated by findings in Italy and worldwide. Naturalistic Museums and University collections should also be propulsive centres and play a social role as a place of contact between researchers, amateurs, and administrators. This session aims to collect all the contributions that wish to promote the geological, mineralogical and paleontological collections and discuss issues related to their preservation and improvement, as well as their role on the dissemination and communication of geology at every level. Finally, new ideas for a more sustainable economic, environmental and social development of museum collections are also welcome.

P7. Geosciences and geoethics: achieving UN Agenda 2030

Conveners: Francesca Lozar [Università di Torino], Elena Egidio [Università di Torino], Andrea Gerbaudo [Università di Torino], Marco Tonon [Università di Torino], Silvia Peppoloni [INGV]

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The United Nations 2030 Agenda and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent the global strategy for building a better world. Yet, the Earth system knowledge and services required to support the SDGs have been largely ignored. This omission is compounded by the lack of geoscience in the SDG debate, even if geoscientists play a crucial role to implement the SDGs and orient society towards a more sustainable future (georisk mitigation, energy transition, prudent georesource management, adaptation to climate change, pollution reduction, enhancement of geoeducation and geoscience communication…). Moreover, the SDGs cannot be achieved without the Earth Science community acknowledging that geoethics is a key for contextualising practices capable to face the challenges of the global anthropogenic changes, including reducing social inequalities and promoting inclusivity. Conveners invite colleagues to submit abstracts focused on ethical and social issues related to geoscience research and practice, on how geosciences can contribute to the 17 SDGs, on best professional practices and strategies for serving society that should be adopted, in order to create conditions for a sustainable and inclusive development of communities. The more significant contributions will be considered for publication in a special issue.

P8. Sustainability in dimension and ornamental stones industry (from exploitation to application)

Conveners: Giovanna Antonella Dino [Università di Torino], Rossana Bellopede [Politecnico di Torino], Nike Luodes [GTK, Finland], Nereo Preto [Università di Padova], Piero Primavori [Freelance consultant, PSC - Primavori Stone Consulting ]

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Dimension and ornamental stones were extensively used (and still are) for buildings and infrastructures in areas interested by quarrying activity. Here, stones are elements of geodiversity that connect the natural environment to the city, which often represents a continuum with the surrounding geology and landscape. This ex-situ geodiversity deserves preservation, conservation and promotion in line with the environmental, social and economic goals of sustainability. Quarries and working plants are often in the same areas, representing important items for local social and economic development. Sustainable exploitation of the natural resource must be planned, by reducing extractive waste production, recycling waste in different productive cycles, saving energy consumption, lowering emissions, etc. The physical-technical and minero-petrographic properties of stones used in historical buildings should be taken into account in the modern architecture in a sustainability perspective. Vernacular traditional architecture, e.g., could be a model for buildings with cohesive sustainable specifications related to local construction materials and energy reduction. We welcome any contributions on dimension and ornamental stones as Heritage Stones, geodiversity elements, on the environmental impact of stone extraction and its mitigation, on the processes of stone transformation, on stone degradation in historical buildings and on its sustainable use in modern architecture.

Earth observation and modelling
P9. Palaeomagnetism, Rock Magnetism and Magnetostratigraphy
Palaeomagnetism & Earth's magnetism Stratigraphy & Structural geology

Conveners: Evdokia Tema [Università di Torino], Anita di Chiara [INGV, Roma], Francesca Cifelli [Università di Roma 3], Massimiliano Porreca [Università di Perugia]

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The study of the remanent magnetization of rocks, sediments and human artifacts can offer precious information about their formation, deposition and use and can be applied in various fields of Earth Sciences. In this session we welcome contributions related to the investigation of the Earth’s magnetic field in various spatial and temporal scales, to the use of rock magnetism and magnetic anisotropy to solve problems related to geological, geophysical and tectonic processes and to the application of magnetostratigraphy to date and correlate sedimentary sequences. We also solicit contributions that apply palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic techniques on various research fields such as geology, archaeology, volcanology, sedimentology, environment and paleoclimate.

P10. In-situ geochemical analyses: methodological advances and applications

Conveners: Antonio Langone [IGG-CNR Pavia], Davide Novella [Università di Padova], Federico Farina [Università di Milano], Tommaso Giovanardi [Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia], Federico Lugli [Università di Bologna]

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The improvement of in-situ techniques allowed to achieve increasingly better spatial-resolution, accuracy and sensitivity of isotopic and elemental measurements. This led to a widespread use of such methods in geological sciences and related fields, opening new perspectives and research questions across different disciplines, from petrology to archaeometry and from medical sciences to paleoclimate. Importantly, a new generation of small-scale geochemical analysis can be also performed on experimental run. In this fashion, geochemical data from natural rock samples can be compared with experiments to gain a better understanding of the past and ongoing Earth’s evolution. In this session we encourage contributions focused on new methodological developments and applications of in-situ techniques. We welcome microscale studies dealing with petrology and geochemistry of mantle and crustal lithologies with the aims to unravel the main processes involving the Solid Earth in space and time. The session is also focused on in-situ geochemical characterization of solid materials for biological and archaeological purposes. Improvements on methodological developments (i.e., spatial resolution enhancement; new reference materials; novel protocols; high-resolution chemical mapping; new data reduction procedures) are also the target of the session. We welcome studies investigating natural samples as well as experimental specimens.

P11. Quantitative geology from digital outcrops: from model building to data extraction and analysis
Tectonics and Structural Geology Natural Hazards and risks

Conveners: Amerigo Corradetti [Università degli Studi di Trieste], Silvia Mittempergher [Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia], Stefano Tavani [Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II], Andrea Bistacchi [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca]

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Digital outcrop models (DOM) are becoming a routine way to collect geological data in the field, thanks to the increasing affordability of good quality cameras, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and GPS systems, and the availability of effective and user-friendly photogrammetry software. The phases going from field survey, DOM reconstruction to data extraction and analysis can be faced using different approaches depending on the characters of the outcrops and on the geological problem investigated. Data extraction is a critical bottleneck in this process because it is often a time-consuming manual process, and its automation is still an open field of research. Here, we welcome contributions including (i) methodological studies about all the phases from photogrammetric survey design, model reconstruction, interpretation, the automation of geological data extraction and their statistical analysis, and (ii) geological case studies based on the DOMs. Early-career scientists and students are particularly encouraged to submit a contribution.

P12. Analogue and numerical modelling to investigate geological processes
Tectonics and Structural Geology Geodynamics

Conveners: Daniele Maestrelli [CNR], Giovanni Toscani [Università degli studi di Pavia], Chiara Del Ventisette [Università degli studi di Firenze], Pietro Sternai [Università degli studi di Milano-Bicocca], Valentina Magni [University of Oslo]

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Analogue and numerical models represent powerful quantitative tools to investigate geological processes and understand their physics and evolution at various spatial and temporal scales. In the last decades, significant progress has been made on the development of these tools. Analogue models can shed light on processes difficult to investigate solely in the field, and numerical models are particularly suitable for simulating time, temperature and chemical dependent processes. Since these tools have different advantages and limitations, they are often used in a coupled way. In this session, we seek for contributions highlighting the crucial role of analogue and numerical models in the study of geological processes at all scales and applied to several research fields, e.g., from geodynamic and tectonics to geomorphology and surface processes, from magmatic and mantle processes to volcano-tectonics and basin analysis. We also invite contributions that focus on the state-of-the-art of the analogue and numerical modelling techniques and we particularly encourage contributions presenting an integration of both methods. Submissions from early career researchers and students are particularly welcome.

P13. Earth and other planets in the digital era: a multiscale technological approach
Planetary Sciences Outreach and education

Conveners: Martina Forzese [Università di Catania], Irene M. Bollati [Università di Milano], Cristina Viani [Università di Torino], Luigi Perotti [Università di Torino], Eugenio Fazio [Università di Catania]

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In the XXI century, conventional geological technics have left the way to new advanced and economical technologies, such as drones, Lidar, Virtual Reality, micro-tomography, which effectively changed the geo-scientific approach. The Covid-19 pandemic forced scientists and teachers to find new approaches for research and educational purposes. 3D reconstructions carry out a pivotal role in geological sciences: at the micro scale, tomography is a highly innovative technique for phase recognition and fabric examination. How do they impact on video-lectures for laboratory and museum collections? The spreading of satellite images and 3D modelling are leading to a completely new approach to traditional field trips, geological mapping, and Earth surface characterization. However, are they good alternatives to the conventional methods of fieldwork? How are these technics affecting the academic and educational world? Although 3D virtual outcrops and field trips are common in Earth Sciences, what about the other planets of the solar system? What are the new frontiers? This session includes topics of: (i) Drone and Lidar imaging acquisition for geosites; (ii) 3D virtual outcrop reconstructions and interpretations for scientific and dissemination purposes; (iii) Virtual field works and trips; (iv) Pros and cons of new technologies in education; (v) Space sciences.

P14. Crustal fluid migration and host rock interactions
Geofluids Geothermal Energy

Conveners: Domenico Montanari [CNR], Adriano Mazzini [University of Oslo], Matteo Lupi [Université de Genève]

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Crustal fluid migration is an important process that affects subsurface plumbing systems, local stress kinematics, promoting the heat and elements transport with crucial implications for resource management and energy/environment sectors. Groundwater, hydrothermal brines and gases circulating in the subsurface interact with local structures across different tectonic and geological settings. Surface manifestations of upwelling fluids include hydrothermal systems, sedimentary- (or mud-) and hybrid- volcanism and cold seeps located onshore and offshore. Investigating the mutual interaction that fluids have with local geological structures provide an excellent opportunity to have an open window to study crustal processes. At depth, the interplay between fluid migration and host-rocks is characterized by complex sedimentary deformation and geochemical reactions where life can adapt to thrive in extremely harsh environments. These unique subsurface settings provide the opportunity for the development and management of economic resources (geothermal, CO2 geological storage, ore materials extraction from thermal brines and deposits, groundwater supply, energy storage, etc). This session encourages contributions from a broad range of disciplines on active and paleo systems that include geophysical, geochemical, microbial, geological, numerical and laboratory studies to foster a better understanding of modern and paleo fluid-driven systems in the upper crust.

P15. Geochemical processes during CO2 storage: from natural systems to laboratory experiments

Conveners: Pierangelo Romano [INGV], Barbara Nisi [CNR], Marcello Liotta [INGV]

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Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere is the most ambitious challenge to keep the global temperature increase below the Glasgow COP26 goals and to mitigate climate change; this is a necessary pathway toward a more sustainable future. In the last years, several research projects focused the attention on CO2 storage in different geological settings through either the enhancement of weathering process of mineral and geological formations or the injection of CO2-bearing fluids in the subsurface. The understanding of the geochemical processes occurring when CO2 interacts with the surroundings phases is a necessary step to better evaluating the environmental impact of CO2 storage. This session will welcome contributions related to the reaction between CO2, fluids, rocks and minerals in the subsoil or deep in the sea, including laboratory experiments, thermodynamic models, mobility of major and trace elements, isotope tracers and studies on natural environments. Contributions discussing the impact that these processes may have on the environment are also welcomed.

P16. Geochemical and isotopic methodologies as tools for the improvement of food traceability and food safety

Conveners: Chiara Telloli [ENEA Bologna], Elena Marrocchino [Università di Ferrara], Valeria Medoro [Università di Ferrara], Sansone Luigi [CREA]

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The increasing demand for healthy and high-quality food products has led to the development of rigid regulations to achieve the certification of authenticity and to protect against fraud. This is leading to an increasing request for suitable scientific protocols able to confirm the authenticity of food products by tracking their geographical origin. Advances in methods and analytical techniques led to an increase in the application of analysis of foods in order to identify their geographical origin by fingerprints. Moreover, the studies on territoriality are based on the hypothesis that chemical elements detected in plants and in their products reflect those contained in the soil and consequently, the geographical features of the production area, such as the soil type and the climate, are considered relevant factors affecting the specific designation. As a result, an accurate determination of geographical origin would be necessary to guarantee the quality and territoriality of the products. In the last decades, geochemistry of light (H, C, O, N, B) and heavy (Sr, Pb) isotopes, sometimes combined with multi-elemental analysis and chemometrics, have been applied to the authentication and the tracking of geographic provenance of foods and processed beverages.

P17. Slab-to-mantle wedge mass transfer: a journey into the subduction factory
Petrology Geodynamics

Conveners: Martina Casalini [Università di Firenze], Enrico Cannaò [Università di Milano, La Statale], Francesca Piccoli [University of Bern, Switzerland]

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Subduction zones are the most relevant sites where the incompatible- and volatile-rich materials are injected, processed, and modified through their journey to depths, modulating the elements recycle since at least the last 3 Ga. Whether elements are stored in the mantle or returned to the surface depends on the metamorphic reactions occurring during subduction and the following mantle modification. The release of fluids and melts exerts a key-role for the element mobilization although the mechanisms of their production and transport are controversial and many questions remain unresolved. What do we know about slab-to-mantle wedge mass transfer? When, how fast and how does the slab dehydrate/melt? What kind of deep processes can be investigated through subduction-related magmas? How is the slab signature transferred to the source of arc magmas? What is the fate of the recycled elements beyond volcanic arcs? These questions can be addressed by multidisciplinary approaches dealing with the petrology and geochemistry of metamorphic and igneous rocks, coupled with powerful tools such as novel isotope systematics, experimental studies, melt/fluid inclusions records. We particularly welcome any contributions that seek to illuminate these fundamental processes and can help us to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the subduction factory realm.

P18. Ground deformation measurements and Geosciences: applications and outlooks

Conveners: Giuseppe Pezzo [INGV Roma], Silvia Bianchini [Università Degli Studi di Firenze], Federico Di Traglia [OGS Trieste], Claudia Meisina [Università degli Studi di Pavia]

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Ground deformation is one of the few directly observable expressions of the majority of the geophysical and geomorphological phenomena. Free availability of short revisit time data from recent SAR satellite missions, long GNSS time series, advances in computational performances for data processing and modelling, allow to characterize a lot of natural phenomena at hundreds kilometers to few meters spatial scale and millimeters- to meters-per-year rates. In this session we host contributions giving an updated overview of the progress in ground deformation measurement applications, spanning from the hazard detection, to mapping, monitoring, modelling and forecasting, from one to multi-disciplinary efforts, from building to regional scale. Welcame contributions concern: - Landslides and subsidence mapping, activity definition, and susceptibility assessment - Volcanoes dynamics (e.g. unrest, eruption cycle, and flank instabilities) - Tectonic deformation and co- and post-seismic ground motion - Subsidence detection and modeling for flooding scenarios - Ground deformation data for operational monitoring and decision support systems (e.g. land use planning; early warning; hazard assessment) - Man-made activity monitoring (mine activity, dams stability, quarries, Gas storage; Oil&Gas production; or Underground water extraction).

P19. The Iberia-Eurasia plate boundary from Variscan to present
Plate kinematics Structural inheritance

Conveners: Riccardo Asti [Université Cote d'Azur, Nice, France], Nicolas Saspiturry [Université de Montpellier, France], Gianluca Frasca [CNR, Torino], Luca Aldega [Sapienza Università di Roma]

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After decades of controversies, the Iberia-Eurasia plate boundary has been the subject of renewed interest in the last few years. It is nowadays widely accepted that the deformation related to the relative movements between Iberia and Eurasia have been accommodated across a wide region that extends from northwestern Spain to southeastern France. More debated is the evolution of the Corsica-Sardinia region and the eastward termination of this boundary. The whole region includes several Permian to Mesozoic basins whose architecture was conditioned by crustal-scale shear zones developed in late/post-Variscan times, some of which are still seismically active in response to present-day Africa-Eurasia convergence. The basins developed during the early breakup of Pangea and the opening of the southern North Atlantic and the Bay of Biscay during the Mesozoic and were inverted to accommodate part of the convergence between Africa and Eurasia during Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary times. In this session, we welcome contributions concerning the tectonic, sedimentary and kinematic evolution (from Permian to present) of structures, mountain belts and basins which recorded the relative motion between Iberia and Eurasia. The aim is to provide firm geological and chronological constraints to unravel the complex evolution of this wide plate boundary.

P20. Evolution of collisional orogens in space and time: the Alpine-Himalayan system in 4 dimensions
Tectonics and Structural Geology Petrology

Conveners: Chiara Montomoli [Università di Torino], Salvatore Iaccarino [Università di Torino], Jean-Luc Epard [Università di Lausanne (Switzerland)], Paola Manzotti [Stockholm University (Sweden)]

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Continental plates collisions give rise to collisional-related mountains that are some of the most spectacular and dominant features of our Planet. During collision of continental plates, considerable deformation occurs with large scale overthrusting, burial and metamorphisms of continental lithosphere portions. The final anatomy and the shape of collisional belts are highly diverse, due to the interactions of several controlling factors, including the pre-collisional tectonic history, the rate and the angle of convergence, the mechanical strength and thermal state of the involved colliding plates. The youngest collisional system on the Earth is the Alpine-Himalayan belt, extending from Spain to Southeast Asia. Its general structure was pioneering described by Emile Argand in "La tectonique de l’Asie. On the occasion of the centenary of Argand work, presented during the XIII International Geological congress in Belgium (August 10, 1922), we propose a thematic session with the aim of providing an update view on the Alpine-Himalayan geology. We encourage the submission of multidisciplinary contributions, dealing with the reconstruction of the tectonics architecture, at different scales (from satellite to micro-and nanoscale), the tectono-metamorphic evolution integrating leading edge petrological or numerical modelling, petrochronology and thermochronology, of the Alpine-Himalayan system.

P21. Composition and evolution of the oceanic lithosphere: a petrological, geochemical and geodynamic perspective
Petrology Geochemistry

Conveners: Carlotta Ferrando [Università di Pavia], Valentin Basch [Università di Pavia], Arianna Secchiari [Università di Parma], Manon Bickert [Università di Modena], Zeudia Pastore [Norwegian University of Science and Technology]

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At mid-oceanic ridges, continuous seafloor spreading and accretion of the oceanic lithosphere is a fundamental process in the dynamic cycle of Earth evolution. Mid-ocean ridges are key sites to investigate adiabatic mantle melting and magmatic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes leading to the accretion of oceanic crust. Notably, the oceanic lithosphere is characterized by a strong architectural variability, resulting from a complex interplay between spreading rate, melt supply, composition of the upwelling mantle and its potential temperature. These parameters critically control the degree of mantle melting, as well as the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses, the composition and distribution of upwelling melts, the cooling rate, melt transport and high- to low-temperature deformation processes. A multi-disciplinary perspective, combining geological, geophysical, and petro-geochemical approaches, is fundamental to unravel the processes occurring beneath the mid-ocean ridges, in turn improving our knowledge of this complex system. This session calls for studies on both modern and fossil oceanic lithosphere, bringing constraints on mantle processes, melt transport and oceanic crust accretion. Contributions on deformation, hydrothermal circulation and cooling of the oceanic lithosphere are also warmly welcomed. Furthermore, we encourage broader discussions on the architecture and geodynamic evolution of divergent oceanic settings.

P22. Growth, recycling and differentiation of the continental crust
Tectonics & Structural Geology Petrology

Conveners: Michele Zucali [Università di Milano], Simona Ferrando [Università di Torino], Patrizia Fiannacca [Università di Catania], Sergio Rocchi [Università di Pisa]

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The continental crust mainly grows by addition of mantle-derived magmas. Nevertheless, its final architecture, bulk composition and lithological diversity during Wilson’s cycles is the result of the interplay of repeated and superposed magmatic, metamorphic and tectonic events. These events involve: recycling of subducted crust within the mantle wedge, and related magmatism; anatexis to form plutonic bodies in the middle-upper crust and residual granulites in the lower crust; juxtaposition of tectono-metamorphic units; development of oriented fabrics in low- to high-T metamorphic rocks and plutons. Recent advancements in these fields figure out the feedback among tectonics, magmatism and metamorphism, and prompt new views on segregation-to-emplacement mechanisms and lifespan rates of igneous batches from their deep cradle to shallow grave. Here, the final gift of magmas to humankind are heat sources for geothermal systems and hydrothermal deposits. This session aims at bringing together contributions to better understand the different roles played by mantle- and crust-derived magmatism, metamorphism and tectonics in shaping the continental crust, as well as the different mechanisms and timescales with which these processes operate. Contributions based on a multidisciplinary approach, mingling and mixing field, micro-structural, petrological, geochemical and geochronological data, with thermodynamic, analogic or numerical modelling are all welcome.

P23. Linking tectonics and climate in mountains building processes

Conveners: Lorenzo Gemignani [FU Berlin], Alexander Rohrmann [FU Berlin], Eline Le Breton [FU Berlin], Pietro Sternai [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca]

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Tectonics, climate and erosion modulate the height of mountains and their rate of topographic growth. Linking the mechanisms, feedbacks and rates at which these processes operate allows for a better understanding of mountain formation, drainage evolution, and subsequent sediment mobility and accumulation. How to quantitatively reconstruct the effect of such interplays in the evolution of mountains remains a challenging, yet fundamental, scientific problem, which deals with the nonlinearity among these driving processes. Efforts have been made to combine many different pieces of information such as geochronology, geological and bio-geochemistry. Here the volume, provenance and properties (fertility, grains size, weathering) of the erosional product from mountain belts are a key piece of information. The drainage dynamics of river-networks also yield important information on the climatic and tectonic history. This session aims in promote an interdisciplinary discussion to bring together results on reconstructing tectonic and climatic evolution of mountains belts. We welcome original research on a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, using interdisciplinary approaches spanning from geomorphic and sedimentary records, thermochronology, cosmogenic nuclides, paleoaltimetry, bio-geochemistry, provenance analysis to modelling.

P24. Western Tethys meets Eastern Tethys - Trans-oceanic comparisons

Conveners: Michał Krobicki [AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland], Hans-Jürgen Gawlick [Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Austria], Marianna Kati [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece], Tin Aung Myint [Mandalay University, Myanmar], Kabi Raj Paudyal [Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal]

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The geological history of the Tethys Ocean is broadly established. However, many details are still unknown and many major questions related to geotectonics, palaeogeography, palaeoceanography and palaeobiogeography remain unanswered. Improved understanding of Mesozoic-Cenozoic ocean/climate history is based on accurate reconstruction of distribution of continents and ocean basins and on reconstruction of opening and closing of seaways along the Tethys. There is little or no agreement about the number or size of separate basins neither on their space-time relationships. Moreover, there is no consensus on the number and location of former micro-continents and on their incorporation into the present-day Eurasian-Mountain Belt. In addition, diachronic closure or collision of continent/continent lets along the margin of Tethys Ocean will also be highlighted by details studies. Correlation between Western and Eastern Tethys is difficult not only because of the large distances involved but also because they are separated by the area of the huge Himalayan collision within which much of the pre-Palaeogene tectonostratigraphic information has been lost. Regarding the above discussions and controversies the SGI-SIMP’s Special Session will focus on the trans-oceanic comparisons between the Western and Eastern part of the Tethys during the latest Paleozoic-Mesozoic times including reconstruction of palaeoceanographic conditions.

P25. Deep earth dynamics to dynamic landscape: how geomorphic records encode signals of long-term geodynamics processes
Tectonic Geomorphology Geodynamics

Conveners: Francesco Pavano [Lehigh University (USA)], Frank J. Pazzaglia [Lehigh University (USA)], Paola Molin [Università degli Studi Roma Tre], Antoniette Greta Grima [Jackson School of Geosciences (USA)], Riccardo Lanari [Università degli Studi di Firenze]

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Deep-Earth forcings (e.g., mantle flow) drive shallower lithospheric-to-crustal deformations (e.g., plate tectonics), defining the main stages of the geodynamic evolution. This is reflected in the creation of dynamic topography, which in turn drives transient tectonic and geomorphic processes including faulting, river incision, fluvial knickpoints migration, dynamic drainage divides, erosion, and sedimentation. Although coupling between tectonic and surficial processes has been explored at many scales, many challenges remain in understanding how geomorphic markers and processes encode crustal deformation driven specifically by dynamic topography. Closing this knowledge gap is the starting point pivotal to many studies including but not limited to mantle upwelling, isostasy, salt doming, intraplate tectonics, and forearc migration. We invite contributions addressing these issues by applying multidisciplinary approaches and crossing canonical disciplines’ boundaries. Research carried out along active plate boundaries or continental interiors are welcome in this session. Results from field-based, analogue and numerical investigations, supported also by thermo- and geochronological data are welcome.

Sessione patrocinata da AIQUA e AIGeo.

P26. Unraveling the feedback between tectonics and landscape evolution processes

Conveners: Ciro Cerrone [Università di Napoli Federico II], Mauro Bonasera [Università di Torino], Michele Delchiaro [Sapienza Università di Roma]

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The unrelenting competition between tectonic processes, tending to build topography, and surface processes, striving to tear them down, represents the core of both tectonic and geomorphological recent studies. Structural elements (e.g., folds, joints, faults) usually shape the Earth surface leading the geomorphic processes to remodel the topography with different mechanisms and rates. For instance, gravitational processes can occur along hillslopes that adjust to high rates of rock uplift and erosion; bedrock streams, and generally fluvial processes, mostly control the landscape evolution of inner land areas recording tectonic rate changes; coastal processes interact with uplifted landmasses adjacent to oceans. In a broader perspective, the geological hazard and related risk evaluations are strongly influenced by a correct quantification of the interaction between surface processes and endogenous dynamics. The resulting knowledge should be implicated in planning suitable mitigation strategies. Several techniques have helped the scientific community to assess the landscape evolution processes due to tectonics. Hence, we encourage contributions focusing on: • Analyses of geomorphic markers (e.g., terraces, fans, paleo-shorelines, deltas, moraines; landslides); • Geodetic studies (e.g., GPS, UAV and satellite images analyses) • GIS and innovative geo-informatic approaches; • Different time-scale deformation rate assessment; • Numerical landscape evolution modeling.

Mineral resources and industrial applications
P27. Ore deposits for a green future
Geochemistry & Mineralogy Sustainability

Conveners: Nicola Mondillo [Università di Napoli], Licia Santoro [Università di Torino], Marilena Moroni [Università di Milano], Stefano Naitza [Università di Cagliari], Francesco Putzolu [Natural History Museum of London]

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The current claim for a “Clean Planet for all” requires a necessary transition to a green economy, implying an essential switch from the use of energies based on fossil fuels towards renewable energies and e-mobility solutions. This will result in a progressive increase of the global demand for raw materials. Furthermore, the widespread use of high-tech devices and the breakthroughs made in the development of new technologies, will further load on the medium-long term outlook for resource demand-supply. Considering that with current technologies, recycling alone could not meet the materials demand, the secure supply of mineral resources from ore deposits will play a pivotal role. In this session, we are glad to invite multidisciplinary contributions in the field of Economic Geology and Mineral Deposits dealing with new developments in mineral exploration, ore characterization, geology and metallogenesis of base, precious, and critical metals deposits, from greenfield or ancient mine sites in Italy, Europe and worldwide. We also encourage contributions dealing with innovative procedures for mineral processing and re-use of mine wastes and tailings.

P28. Mineralogy and waste: circular economy for a sustainable future

Conveners: Giancarlo Capitani [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca], Sonia Conte [Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali Ceramici-CNR Faenza], Linda Pastero [Università degli Studi di Torino], Cecilia Viti [Università degli Studi di Siena]

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The production of waste, both toxic and non-toxic, is greatly increased in recent years due to population growth, booming economy, and rapid urbanization. Construction and demolition waste (CDW), asbestos-containing material (ACM), water treatment sludge (WTS), municipal incinerator ash (MIA), are only a few of the long list of inorganic wastes produced. The increasing amount of waste produced, along with the need to find alternative to raw materials conventionally employed for the production of goods, is of great concern to nations, municipalities, and individuals. Landfilling does not represent a sustainable solution, not least because of the difficulties to find virgin lands in highly populated countries such as Italy. A smarter solution would be waste detoxification (if required) and recycling into secondary raw material (SRM). If adopted, this would (i) reduce the waste volume (limiting land reclamation), (ii) produce a valuable SRM (thus preserving resources), and (iii) eliminate any health and environmental hazard. In this respect, mineralogy can give a decisive contribution from many points of view. The session is therefore open to contributions about waste (toxic, non-toxic) treatment and recycling in a perspective of circular economy. These include (but are not limited to): (i) use of secondary raw materials in industrial and non-industrial processes, (ii) reuse and recycling of waste, (iii) inertization of hazardous materials for redeployment, (iv) recovery of critical raw materials from secondary sources, (v) removal and recovery of gases, heavy metals and organic pollutants from natural and anthropic matrices

P29. The challenge of alkali-activated materials: new chance for a sustainable world

Conveners: Claudio Finocchiaro [Università di Catania], Roberta Occhipinti [Università di Catania], Giuseppe Sabatino [Università di Messina]

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The environmental sustainability is one of the main global tasks addressed by the scientific-technical community. In this scenario the research of green materials to contrast the energy consumes and environmental pollutions caused by the traditional materials, such as the massive production of Portland cement, increases exponentially in the last decades. The new green frontier in materials field is represented by alkaline cement or geopolymeric cement- as they are called- thanks to their final properties and low environmental impact, limiting as possible the CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. Indeed, they do not need high temperature calcination, and most of them can be synthesized at room temperature with high energy and money save. Alkaline activated materials (AAM) are inorganic materials produced by the alkaline activation of several aluminosilicate sources, deriving by natural or waste materials, whose final 3D dimensional network structure is mainly amorphous. In addition to the low environmental impact, they are very appreciated for wide versatility in different field applications both in building sector and industrial one. The aim of the session is to consider the key results of each research in the design and implementation of solutions based on alkali activated materials, trying to assess the way on how to exploit their properties in each context.

P30. Petrographic and geochemical approach for a sustainable, resilient and circular supply of ore minerals with focus on critical raw materials

Conveners: Carmela Vaccaro [Università di Ferrara], Rosalda Punturo [Università di Catania], Claudia Ricchiuti [Università di Catania],  Aida Maria Conte [CNR Roma], Chiara Telloli [ENEA Bologna]

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This session focuses on finding "critical metals" starting from granite rocks and derivative waste. Since the granite quarries are often characterized by the presence of small pegmatite bodies as well as veins affected by the crystallization of deuteric stages and late-magmatic phases enriched in rare earths, zircon, and phosphate (zircon, epidote, allanite, and apatite), these deposits are classified as critical metal deposits by the EU. Sometimes, special enrichment of Zinc, Copper, Silver and Gold can be observed. Usually, the anomalous concentrations in CRM characterizing these bodies involve metals such as REE, lithium, Strontium, Rubidium, Titanium, Niobium, Tantalum, Zirconium, Germanium, Gallium etc. A steady increase in demand for these metals for various applications such as: i) components of sensors, ii) green energy production, iii) digital tools, as well as for iv) the European Green Deal, is currently registered. The exploitation of these metals is favored by the simultaneous extraction of other industrial minerals such as ceramic fluxes. In fact, feldspar separation and enrichment plants produce a waste of rare earth minerals and other critical metals with a cut off grade higher than that required for valorization and recovery in circular terms.

P31. Resource availability: toward a scientific view on the meaning of sustainability and ecological transition

Conveners: Francesco Di Benedetto [Università di Ferrara], Luca Pardi [CNR]

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In the midst of the SARS-COV2 epidemics storm, human vessel is navigating between the Scylla of climate change and the Charybdis of the depletion of natural resources, from fossil fuels to mineral commodities. Although both themes are heatedly debated, in our vision, no interpretation of the “sustainability” or the “ecological transition” issues can dodge these predicaments. As a direct consequence of the global economic slump caused by the pandemic, most of the major world’s economical players are reconsidering their grounds and goals. EU has fostered an ambitious project (RRP, Recovery and Resilience Plan) aimed at recovering growth, by further reducing the energy dependence on fossil fuels, already planned after the 2015 COP21 in Paris, and pushing the social and economic activities toward the path of low environmental impact and high energy and material efficiency. These goals could collide against the constraints of the supply of energy and mineral resources whose availability in the near future and in the long term needs to be thoroughly investigated. This session welcomes all kind of contributions either theoretical or experimental, which shed light on problems to be faced and perspectives to be seized, in the future. A non-exhaustive list of topics will include: the future availability of earth and energy resources, prospection of new resources, evolution of exploitation techniques and transformation processes, resources substitution, environmental and health consequences of resources exploitation, recycling of geo-materials, limits and opportunities of urban mining, Anthropocene issues, future development of technologies based on critical raw materials and on renewables.

P32. Microporous and layered minerals: properties and applications for a sustainable future

Conveners: Paolo Lotti [Università di Milano], Giorgia Confalonieri [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France], Davide Comboni [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France]

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The crystal-chemistry and structural features of microporous and layered minerals generate unique physical-chemical properties, largely exploited in many fields: from industrial processes to agriculture, environmental protection and many others. Among their peculiar properties, cation-exchange capacity, molecular adsorption by crystal-fluid interaction and catalytic ability will continue to become more and more valuable in the upcoming future, when sustainability, with its many possible declinations in terms of e.g. environment, economy or efficiency, will acquire an ever-growing relevance. In this session, contributions on crystal-chemistry, properties, and applications of microporous and layered minerals (or their synthetic counterparts) in environmental and other fields, are welcome. Experimental and theoretical studies are expected to provide a common ground of discussion for geo-scientists performing researches on these fascinating materials.

P33. New insights on the study of gem-quality minerals and their synthetic analogous

Conveners: Giovanna Agrosì [Università di Bari "Aldo Moro"], Gioacchino Tempesta [Università di Bari "Aldo Moro"], Maria Cristina Caggiani [Università di Catania], Alessia Coccato [University of Oxford (UK)]

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The session is devoted to updating the most diverse issues in scientific gemmology, including the use of innovative methods of investigation; studies about growth conditions and origin of gem-quality minerals; mineralogical characterization on natural gems and their synthetic homologous; treatments. Moreover, the scientific contributions regarding the trade and the traceability of gem-quality minerals in today's marketplace will be also welcome.

P34. Celebrating the International Year of Mineralogy: two centuries of progress and discoveries
Crystal Chemistry Crystallography

Conveners: Giovanni Orazio Lepore [Università di Firenze], Daniela Mauro [Università di Pisa], Alessandra Altieri [Sapienza Università di Roma]

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More than two centuries of mineralogical and crystallographic studies, following the seminal works of René Just Haüy, greatly improved our insight on the extraordinary complexity hidden in minerals. Structural analyses helped to elucidate the role played by minor components, contributing to the understanding of the conditions of formation of minerals and allowing the description of unpredictable structures critical for assessing their technological potentialities. This session aims at discussing recent advances on structural properties, chemistry, classification and nomenclature of minerals. Contributions regarding the description of new minerals, re-examination of the crystal-chemical features of known mineral species, nomenclature and classification issues, as well as studies on the relationship between compositional and structural features of minerals, will be welcome.

Natural Hazards and risks (MPG)
P35. Slow rock slope deformations in different geodynamic and climatic settings: processes, activity, hazards
Tectonic geomorphology Landscape evolution

Conveners: Federico Agliardi [Università di Milano-Bicocca], Chiara Crippa [Università di Milano-Bicocca], Emiliano Di Luzio [CNR Roma ], Carlo Esposito [Sapienza Università di Roma]

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Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are giant landslides with long lifespan (10^3-10^5 yr) that involve entire high-relief slopes. DSGSDs are often active at slow rates (up to cm/yr), threatening critical infrastructures, and host large landslides possibly undergoing progressive failure until collapse, making these phenomena important landscape evolution and geohazard players. Geological, geomorphological and geotechnical studies at both the regional and slope scale demonstrated that these phenomena are widespread in contrasting geodynamic and climatic settings. Indeed, large slope deformations evolve under different controls and mechanisms in different settings, characterized by diverse rock types, tectonic activity and geomorphic impacts of glaciations, resulting in tectonics/fluvial dominated (e.g. Apennines) vs (para)glacial landscapes (e.g. Alps). Nevertheless, the impacts of these controls and mechanisms on the regional distribution and geohazard potential of DSGSD are not completely understood. We invite innovative and interdisciplinary contributions bridging geomorphology, structural and engineering geology, using different approaches (inventory studies, fieldwork, geochronology, monitoring/remote sensing, numerical modeling) to improve our understanding of slow rock slope deformations in contrasting geological settings (including Alps and Apennines) with reference to: a) controls on spatial distribution, mechanisms and long-term evolution; b) styles of present-day activity; c) mechanisms of transformation into fast, potentially catastrophic large landslides.

P36. Multi-scale rock physical properties in subsurface exploitation and natural hazards

Conveners: Fabio Trippetta [Sapienza Università di Roma], Sergio Vinciguerra [Università di Torino], Federico Agliardi [Università Milano Bicocca], Davi Iacopini [Università Federico II Napoli], Luca De Siena [Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany]

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Muti-scale rock physical properties of deformed and undeformed rocks are key for understanding the processes driving natural hazards, such as earthquakes, landslides, floods, subsidence, and sinkholes. Moreover, the growing need for underground sources of energy and raw materials drives the development of new subsurface exploitation techniques whose hazardous impacts on environment and society must be minimized. At the laboratory scale, petrophysics and rock deformation experiments allow to reproduce the mechanisms acting at different stress and thermal conditions by combining rock physical and mineralogical properties and their changes over time. Field-scale observations such as GPS, subsurface measurements and geological indicators provide information on ongoing processes at the Earth’s surface. Computational modelling is often used to test the reliability of laboratory data once upscaled. New multiscale techniques, time-lapse monitoring, and modelling need to be developed, tested, and applied to bridge the gap among different scales. Advancements can be achieved by improving the link between different communities such as rock physics, petrology, geophysics, computational physics, structural geology, geobiology and engineering geology to develop mitigation and hazard management strategies. We welcome contributions on field data, laboratory experiments, space and time-lapse numerical modelling, seismic properties, rock-fluids interactions, subsurface reservoirs, slope instability and landscape evolution.

P37. Landslides from mountain to coastal environments and beyond
Geomorphology Planetary Sciences

Conveners: Costanza Morino [Université Savoie Mont-Blanc, Le Bourget-du-Lac, France], Mauro Soldati [Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia], Philip Deline [Université Savoie Mont-Blanc, Le Bourget-du-Lac, France]

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Landslides are an important landscape-shaping process, being one of the main mechanisms for sediment release and transport. They affect all sorts of terrains, from mountainous to coastal, from desertic to sub-aqueous, at all latitudes in various geological, tectonic, and climatic settings, including both undisturbed and anthropogenically modified landscapes. They have even been recognised on other planetary bodies (e.g., Mars, Moon). The triggering, geological and geomorphological characteristics, dynamics and development of landslides represent a central theme in geomorphology. The rates at which landslide processes act to modify the landscape are extremely varied, and span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This session combines contributions investigating recent or past landslide events on all terrestrial and extra-terrestrial environments. In particular, we welcome studies that apply a diverse set of tools and data analyses, including field and ground-truthing characterization, mapping, remotely sensed/GIS-based analyses, inventories, geochemical and fingerprinting measurements and techniques, dendrochronological approaches, cosmogenic radionuclide dating, and experimental/numerical modelling.

P38. Monitoring and sustainable management of natural and artificial cavities: a contribution toward mitigation of the risk from underground processes
Geomorphology Cultural Geoheritage

Conveners: Mario Parise [Università di Bari], Bartolomeo Vigna [Politecnico di Torino], Alberto Cina [Politecnico di Torino], Cristina Carbone [Università di Genova], Valentina Balestra [Politecnico di Torino]

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Hypogean environments are among the most important geological features in the world, hosting natural, historical, cultural heritage and important economic resources. Natural and artificial cavities have exceptional aesthetical and scientific values, especially for their richness in spelothems, secondary minerals, biodiversity, and the extraordinary Quaternary archive they represent. Developing tourism in show caves could expose them to a series of degradation processes such as CO2 and temperature increase, speleothem corrosion, lampenflora growth, and pollution. On the contraries, artificial cavities such as mines and quarries, could contribute to pollution of nearby environments, including groundwater, and be at the origin of sinkholes, with catastrophic consequences for the built-up environment. A proper management of the underground is therefore essential for conservation of these ecosystems and their resources. In this scientific session, geomatics techniques useful for detecting subterranean environments, monitoring, analysis of pollutants, and studies on speleothems, minothems and their weathering will be discussed, in order to monitor the current status of the cavities and to find solutions for their conservation and management. Further, the need of deeper knowledge of artificial cavities, aimed at mitigating the risk related to their collapse, will also be dealt with.

P39. Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA): hazard identification, assessment and mitigation
Environmental Mineralogy Geohazard

Conveners: Dario Di Giuseppe [Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia], Jasmine Rita Petriglieri [Università di Torino], Laura Fornasini [CNR], Michele Mattioli [Università di Urbino Carlo Bo]

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Over the last decades, many researchers focused on asbestos and other mineral fibres with the aim to assess their potential hazard for human health. Currently, health problems related to exposure to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) shifted the attention of the scientific community from the occupational/industrial area to the geo-environmental domain. NOA is a common constituent of various types of rocks and soil in different geological settings worldwide. Disturbance of NOA-bearing rocks and soils, especially through human activities, can result in airborne asbestos fibres, leading to potential inhalation and health risk. This session aims to explore the characterization, occurrence, environmental dispersion, and toxicology of NOA and elongate mineral particles (EMP). Contributions on mineralogy, geology, environmental chemistry, epidemiology and medicine are welcome. The main goal is to provide new data and new research perspectives to the scientific audience that is increasingly called upon to support local/national environmental and health agencies in the identification and quantification of NOA/EMP risk, and in the development of management plans to minimise the risk of exposure to the population.

Outreach and education
P40. Geology is coming home. A renewed interest in Italian geoscientific tradition
Cultural and geoheritage

Conveners: Alessio Argentieri [Città metropolitana di Roma Capitale], Marco Pantaloni [ISPRA, Roma], Pietro Mosca [CNR Torino], Luca Barale [CNR Torino]

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“Geology has been an Italian science. In his “Principles of Geology” (proem to 1st edition, 1830) Sir Charles Lyell paid homage to the forerunners of Earth sciences in our Country. Italian primacy in the early stages of development of geological disciplines, between 16th and 18th century, was in fact strongly admired by the founder of modern geology. The birth of the term “Giologia”, coined by to Ulisse Aldrovandi in Bologna in 1603, has been celebrated on the occasion of its 400th anniversary. This recurrence initiated a renewal of interest in Italian geoscientific tradition, on the grounds of pioneer studies of Bruno Accordi and Nicoletta Morello, from the geological and epistemological points of view respectively. The session is aimed to promote interdisciplinary contributions on Italian Earth sciences and to stimulate the interaction between the scientific and historical approach. Promoting public awareness and understanding the importance of Earth sciences is in fact a crucial issue for Italy, a Country constantly facing the consequences of natural hazards. Celebrating ten years of intense activity of the History of geosciences Section, established in 2012 by the Italian Geological Society, we would thus venture to say that “Geology is coming home!”.

P41. Geosciences and museums: integrated approaches for a sustainable future
Conservation Dissemination

Conveners: Maura Fugazzotto [Università di Catania], Rosarosa Manca [Università di Firenze], Luca Bellucci [Università di Firenze]

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Geo-paleontological, petrographic and mineralogical museums, with their heritage of unique historical and scientific importance, have a high research and educational value. They act as a dissemination tool for the knowledge of the Earth sciences, their evolution over time and their role for the development of a present and future consciousness. However, are modern museums doing enough in order to involve the society in the construction of a sustainable future? Are they evolving and adopting more sustainable practices for conservation, high-quality research, collections updating and dissemination purposes? This session is open to contributions about: i) new methodological approaches to disseminate research and raise awareness of the society on sustainability; ii) sustainable and innovative research based on the museum specimens; iii) and new and smart practices for the conservation and valorization of mineralogical, petrographic, paleontological and other Earth sciences collections. Didactic methodologies based on museums’ activities, as well as experiences, good practices and ideas for a more efficient cataloguing and digitalization of the geoscience collections are also warmly encouraged. The session will be a crucial opportunity for promoting discussion and collaborations between museum operators and researchers and laying the foundations for new projects and research lines.

P42. Geosciences at School

Conveners: Francesca Cifelli [Università di Roma Tre], Anna Gioncada [Università di Pisa], Claudia Lupi [Università di Pavia], Eleonora Paris [Università di Camerino], Manuela Pelfini [Università di Milano]

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The session is an opportunity for discussion among school and university teachers in order to improve the geoscience skills of the next generation of citizens. New approaches and methods for education in Geosciences will be presented and discussed, including ICT practices in place for secondary and higher education, with particular emphasis on innovative experiences of distance education. Contributions related to learning sequences and activities in Earth science topics, international experiences, research in geoscience education, and collaborative education experiences between schools and universities, natural history museums, science centers, are welcome. The session will also be an opportunity to present and discuss experiences and results of the national geoscience program PLS (Scientific Degrees Project), as well as best practices in teacher education in Earth Sciences. Teachers of all school grades and researchers are invited to participate and contribute with their projects and activities, with the aim of spreading the culture of Earth Sciences in schools and society.

P43. Climate change and the fossil record

Conveners: Massimo Bernardi [MUSE - Science Museum, Trento], Daniele Scarponi [Università di Bologna]

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How ecosystems will adjust to near-future climate changes is a challenging question for scientist and policymakers worldwide. An understanding of how biotas could respond to global warming is needed to plan appropriate conservation and economic strategies. To estimate the effect of the near future climate warming on marine and terrestrial ecosystems, long-term studies are essential. Nevertheless, such questions are difficult to address within laboratory conditions or through systematic field surveys, which rarely last longer than a decade. A complementary approach is to investigate biotic dynamics in the fossil record and in relation to past climate conditions. Geobiological archives, as fossil rich sedimentary successions, can lengthen records of geosystem responses to climate changes far beyond the timescale of direct ecological monitoring. In this context, we seek here studies of long-term responses of marine and terrestrial ecosystems affected by climate oscillations. In detail this session will explore how palaeoecological, geochemical and sedimentological approaches to sedimentary successions, can enhance interpretation of past sedimentary environments and past biotic trends. Indeed, understanding the structure and composition of past ecosystems and environmental changes through time allow to depict hypothetical scenarios of community and geosystem dynamics in the face of future climate changes.

P44. Earth’s carbon cycle in active magmatic-tectonic systems and in the mantle: from production to transport, fixation and outgassing
Geochemistry & Volcanology Mineralogy

Conveners: Rosario Esposito [Università di Milano Bicocca], Chiara Groppo [Università di Torino], Andrea Rizzo [INGV], Andres Sandoval-Velasquez [Università di Palermo], Azzurra Zucchini [Università di Perugia]

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So far, the global Earth's natural CO2 degassing has been considered irrelevant compared to anthropogenic emissions. However, it is becoming evident that a detailed knowledge of the deep, long-term, carbon cycle, acting at the geological time scale and involving the slow exchange of carbon between the rocks and the Earth’s surface, is of paramount importance for understanding the processes that control global climate changes. We welcome all researches from across the whole field of Earth’s carbon cycle that provide a contribution to our understanding of (i) the processes governing the origin, transport and cycling of carbon from the mantle to the surface through active volcanoes, (ii) the production, transfer, fixation and outgassing of carbon in different active non-volcanic systems, including both collisional and extensional settings, (iii) the stability of carbon-bearing phases at both ambient and non-ambient (high-pressure/high-temperature) conditions. These may include (but are not limited to) contributions in the fields of mantle, magmatic and metamorphic petrology, mineralogy and mineral physics, geophysics, and fluids geochemistry, based on novel and/or traditional approaches, ranging from fieldwork, to experimental petrology and mineralogy, theoretical calculations, thermodynamic modelling, fluid and melt inclusions studies, noble gas and CO2 isotopic analyses, volcanic volatiles and hydrogeological studies.

P45. IUGS sub-commission for nomenclature and classification of igneous rocks. New ideas and proposals
Geochemistry Mineralogy

Conveners: Michele Lustrino [Università di Roma La Sapienza], Sebastian Tappe [UiT The Arctic University of Norway]

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Strong interest in functioning igneous rock classification exists beyond the relatively small group of magmatic petrologists, and includes geologists who map regionally, investigate structures and explore for mineral or hydrocarbon deposits, as well as geodynamicists, because they all rely on simple and unified naming conventions when dealing with magmatic rocks and processes. The second edition of the IUGS recommendations on the systematics of igneous rocks was published in 2002, and during the past 20 years numerous inconsistencies have emerged, in particular with reference to the nomenclature of pyroclastic rocks, carbonatites, kalsilite-bearing lithologies, lamproites, high-MgO rocks, meteorites, etc. Further revisions of the IUGS classification of igneous rocks are, therefore, required. The goal of a newly assembled IUGS Task Group is to publish a fully updated and revised edition of Le Maitre et al. (2002), further streamlining igneous rock nomenclature and clarifying the underlying principles of their classification. In this session, leading experts will propose changes and new strategies for igneous rock classifications including, for the first time, extra-terrestrial materials. This revision will integrate field evidence and new analytical results made possible by advances in instrumentation and experimental techniques, so that possible genetic links between different groups and types of magmatic rocks can be explored further. We invite researchers working in the field of igneous petrology to present and discuss their views on the currently recommended nomenclature, with new ideas being considered for adoption into the ongoing revision of the IUGS classification system.

P46. Advances in forward thermodynamic modelling, petrochronology and isotope geochemistry of metamorphic rocks
Geochemistry Geodynamics

Conveners: Fabrizio Tursi [Università di Bari Aldo Moro], Francesca Micheletti [Università di Bari Aldo Moro], Francesca Piccoli [University of Bern, Switzerland]

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Metamorphic rocks represent our best tool for deciphering the orogenic processes that have occurred on our planet through time. Their mineral assemblage may record equilibrium or disequilibrium, open or closed system behaviour, during different metamorphic events. Coupling advances in forward thermodynamic modelling, cutting-edge techniques for chemical and isotope microanalysis, geochronology and trace-element diffusion modelling, to tectonic processes, is opening exciting new avenues to the better understanding of deformation-reaction history of metamorphic rocks and fluid flow in the Earth’s lithosphere. This session will highlight the importance of integrating cutting-edge analytical techniques and thermodynamic/numerical modelling to better understand metamorphic and tectonic processes, including, but not limited to, collisional orogens evolution and fluid/melt-rock interactions during deformation. Through these insights, the session will provide an overview of the most current research on metamorphic petrology and tectonic processes, as well as avenues for future innovation. We welcome contributions dealing with phase equilibrium thermodynamic modelling, petrochronology, trace-element and isotope geochemistry and diffusion modelling related to tectonic events.

P47. A journey into Earth's upper mantle: spotlights on its composition, structure and dynamics
Geochemistry Geodynamics

Conveners: Luca Faccincani [Università di Ferrara], Federico Casetta [University of Vienna], Barbara Faccini [Università di Ferrara], Cristina Perinelli [Sapienza Università di Roma], Luca Ziberna [Università di Trieste]

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The composition and structure of Earth’s lithospheric mantle are essentially inferred from petrological and geochemical studies of exposed mantle sections, ophiolites and xenoliths from cratonic and non-cratonic areas. These few natural samples preserve an integrated, fragmentary record of a wide spectrum of multistage processes, such as melt extraction, recycling of volatiles and crust and interaction with metasomatic fluids and melts. Understanding the many facets of Earth’s lithosphere structure and dynamics and their implication for large-scale geological cycles requires a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, geochemical-petrological studies on natural samples must be complemented with - and compared to - thermodynamic modelling, laboratory experiments at high pressure and temperatures as well as geophysical data. This session will bring together multidisciplinary studies with the aim to explore and discuss the new findings on the physico-chemical state, dynamics and structure of the lithosphere. Contributions from a broad range of disciplines, including - but not limited to - petrography, geochemistry, experimental petrology, thermodynamic modelling and geophysics are welcomed. Multidisciplinary contributions linking results to large-scale geodynamic processes are strongly encouraged.

P48. Stressed minerals and rocks: witnesses from the earth interior
Petrology and Mineral Physics Tectonics

Conveners: Nicola Campomenosi [University of Hamburg], Mattia Gilio [Università di Pavia], Mattia L. Mazzucchelli [University of Mainz], Matteo Alvaro [Università di Pavia]

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Rock-forming minerals and their micro-structures represent a fundamental window to the processes occurring in the Earth crust and interior. The occurrence in rocks of key minerals such as coesite, diamond and majorite poses a fundamental first order approximation on the stress field under which the rock formed or recrystallized. However, recent advances in Earth Sciences aim to resolve in more details the influence of stress in geological processes. This is possible thanks to the introduction of high-performance experimental and computational techniques in the Earth sciences that allow us studying the behaviour of minerals and rocks (e.g. elastic response, defects, phase equilibria and transformations etc.) under hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic stress conditions with unprecedented detail. The knowledge of the response of geomaterials to stress at the micro and meso-scale can then be linked to large-scale rock deformation mechanisms, and represents a fundamental framework to better interpret geological processes. In this session, we welcome contributions adopting a broad variety of experimental and computational techniques to investigate the effect of stress on minerals, rocks and their physical properties from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale.

Planetary Sciences
P49. A petrographic and mineralogical journey through the extraterrestrial bodies: from differentiated to undifferentiated materials

Conveners: Mara Murri [Università di Milano- Bicocca], Jacopo Nava [Università di Padova], Anna Barbaro [Università di Pavia]

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The study and exploration of extraterrestrial bodies and their mineral components are of fundamental importance to better understand the processes involved in the origin and evolution of our Solar System. Looking forward to a sustainable future, the planetary geological community is deeply involved in the developments of last-generation techniques and new methodological approaches to improve the investigation of asteroidal and planetary bodies from the direct study of extraterrestrial materials (e.g. meteorites, micrometeorites, interstellar grains, sample return materials) and laboratory experiments, to the indirect study of planetary surfaces through remote hyperspectral analyses. Moreover, an increasing interest in exoplanet explorations is developing thanks to the new research frontiers. The aim of the session is to bring together scientists from different backgrounds to enhance discussion and have the opportunity to establish new collaborations. We encourage contributions that cover studies from the petrological, petrographic and mineralogical investigation, as well as laboratory activities on differentiated and undifferentiated extraterrestrial materials or analogues. In addition, we welcome contributions covering studies about hyperspectral analyses of extraterrestrial bodies, exoplanets and astrobiology.

P50. Towards modern concepts in seismotectonic-model definition and imaging: multidisciplinary and multiscale approaches in different tectonic settings

Conveners: Rita de Nardis [Università di Chieti, CRUST], Fabio Luca Bonali [Università di Milano Bicocca, CRUST], Federica Ferrarini [Università di Chieti, CRUST], Valeria Paoletti [Università di Napoli Federico II, CRUST], Debora Presti [Università di Messina, CRUST]

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Seismotectonic studies are key for seismic hazard assessment in tectonically and volcano-tectonically active regions. Defining a seismotectonic model is challenging since sometimes several conditions (e.g., paucity of geological- and surface deformation data) can hamper the accurate definition of active faults geometry, kinematics and of associated stress- and deformation fields. In addition, areas subjected to these studies are often characterized by low-level seismicity. Nowadays, advances in technology and scientific computing, allow the acquisition of large amounts of geological data even in formerly-unreachable places, make geophysical field data more effective and data processing less demanding, allow enhancing seismic catalogs in areas with low-level seismicity and provide information from geophysical, geodetic, or remote-sensing analysis. Therefore, improvements of quality data and easier dataset integrations are more and more attainable, and seismotectonic model definition/imaging are increasingly realistic and reliable. This session aims at focussing on seismotectonic models, data and aspects that contribute to define them, and welcomes contributions on: active faults studies, including multiscale and multidisciplinary approaches; dataset integration for faults imaging and tectonic-setting definition; high-quality seismological data, field- and remotely-collected data for qualitative and quantitative analysis; numerical and analogue modelling of faulting processes; innovative methodologies for data collection and analysis.

Stratigraphy and Sedimentology
P51. From Source to Sink - the history of sediments inferred from the geological record

Conveners: Luigi Bruno [Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia], Bruno Campo [Università degli Studi di Bologna], Claudio Pellegrini [ ISMAR-CNR Bologna], Cristina Stefani [Università degli Studi di Padova], Marcello Tropeano [Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro]

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The history of sediments, from their production to their deposition can be very complex, because sediments are not directly transferred from a single source to a single sink along a simple conduit. In most cases numerous sediment sources provide detritus to multiple temporary storage through a network of pathways. The reconstruction of this intricate history from the geological record can be very challenging. The geographical origin of the detritus has been inferred using compositional data and paleocurrent indicators. Provenance data, framed into a detailed stratigraphic picture permit the calculation of the volume of produced and accumulated sediments. Researches from ancient and modern alluvial, coastal and marine systems are welcome. We encourage contributions focusing on the following aspects of the source-to-sink realm: (i) compositional characterization of sediments; (ii) dispersal pathways of organic and inorganic detritus; (iii) calculation of sediment volumes transferred to a basin; (iv) sediment-budget-related geomorphological-environmental changes; (v) processes and mechanisms of sediment production, routing and accumulation; (vi) evolution of sedimentary basins in response to changes in sediment supply and accommodation; vii) source-to-sink approach applied to carbonate systems; viii) the siliciclastic-carbonate mixed realm. The practical impact and the economic and social relevance of this research shall also be highlighted.

P52. Taphonomy and diagenesis of marine biogenic sediments in ancient and modern depositional environments
Biogeosciences Palaeontology

Conveners: Luca Pellegrino [Università di Torino], Alan Maria Mancini [Università di Torino], Karen Gariboldi [Università di Pisa], Giulia Bosio [Università di Milano-Bicocca], Manuela Bordiga [OGS Trieste]

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Marine biogenic sediments comprise a wide array of deposits (e.g., calcareous and siliceous oozes, phosphorites, organic-rich shales) deriving from the metabolic activity, accumulation or decay of forms of life ranging from bacteria to phyto- and zooplankton, up to vertebrates. They represent an excellent tool for paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic reconstructions, as well as for studying the evolutionary trends of primary producers and consumers in the geologic time. Moreover, they constitute a primary target for addressing the impact of anthropogenic pressure on the marine biogeochemical cycles and for predicting the future climatic trends. However, these applications must carefully consider the taphonomic and diagenetic processes that may potentially affect the marine sediments and their paleobiological content, in order to avoid biased interpretations. This session is aimed at providing new insights about such processes, discussing case studies from both ancient and modern depositional settings. We encourage multidisciplinary contributions dealing with different aspects (e.g., sedimentology, paleobiology, biogeochemistry, etc.) and techniques (e.g., petrographic observations, 3D imaging of body fossils, biomarkers and isotope analysis, etc.) of this issue.

P53. The Sediment Routing System as a tool to the understanding of fossil depositional systems and the preservation of modern ones

Conveners: Francesca Micheletti [Università di Bari], Emilia Le Pera [Università di Calabria], Stefania Lisco [Università di Bari]

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This session focused on the crucial factors controlling the composition of clastic sediments as cumulative effects of modifications occurring between the initial erosion of the parent rocks and the final burial during diagenesis. We encourages contributions in which the use of petrography and geochronology of terrigenous/hybrid arenites highlight the record of tectonics in clastic archives and dispersal pathways within basins, quantifying sedimentary budgets, useful for paleogeographic and paleotectonic reconstructions, as well as in petroleum and mineral exploration. We invite interdisciplinary researchers working on all aspects of basin analysis (from source to sink) across different temporal and spatial scales and on a variety of depositional processes and systems (clastic, carbonates, mixed). We welcome field, experimental and modelling studies, as well as sedimentological, geochemical, structural, geochronological, paleogeographic, provenance and marine geology investigations.

P54. Modern and ancient marine evaporite systems
Biogeosciences Geochemistry

Conveners: Francesco Dela Pierre [Università di Torino], Giovanni Aloisi [Institute de Physique du Globe de Paris, France], Adele Bertini [Università di Firenze], Marcello Natalicchio [Università di Torino], Mathia Sabino [CNR]

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Marine evaporites accumulate today in semi-enclosed basins with a negative hydrological balance and restricted connections with the open ocean. Basin-scale deposition of huge amounts of evaporites took place during critical intervals of Earth history, forming the so called salt giants (e.g. the Zechstein of Northern Europe, the Badenian of Eastern Europe, and the Messinan evaporites of the Mediterranean basin). The interpretation of ancient salt giants is often problematic, owing to the lack of modern analogues, the intense diagenetic transformations of evaporitic rocks, and the paucity of fossils, often represented only by extremophile microorganisms. Combining different disciplines is crucial for the interpretation of ancient evaporite successions, potentially helping to assess future environmental changes that can affect our Planet following current global warming and aridification. In this session we encourage contributions dealing with ancient salt giants and modern evaporite deposits that bring together different techniques including, but not limited to, sedimentology, petrography, isotopic signatures, body fossils, palynology, lipid biomarkers, major and trace element pattern.

P55. Field mapping and stratigraphy: significant insights from the geologic record
Tectonics and Structural Geology Vulcanology

Conveners: Angelo Cipriani [Servizio Geologico d'Italia (ISPRA)], Simone Fabbi [Servizio Geologico d'Italia (ISPRA)], Chiara Zuffetti [Università di Milano]

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Field-based geological mapping represents the most valuable tool to obtain new stratigraphic data. Palaeoecological perturbations, synsedimentary tectonics and sea-level fluctuations controlled the deposition of marine to continental deposits in the peri-Mediterranean area since the Late Palaeozoic, as recorded in the stratigraphic successions of different palaeogeographic domains. These successions are imbricated and exhumed due to orogenic/post-orogenic deformations, or uplifted in forebulge areas, and are unconformably covered by Neogene-Quaternary deposits. Their knowledge can be enhanced by performing detailed observations and descriptions on the field. The application of the classical methodologies of geological mapping, associated with new tools derived from the evolution of scientific knowledge and advances in technology, continuously provide new sedimentological and stratigraphic cues. The aim of this session is to discuss new stratigraphic reconstructions from national to peri-Mediterranean continental, shallow, and deep marine environments, derived from field mapping projects also considering the renewed funding of the official geological mapping project at 1:50,000 scale (CARG Project). Contributions may focus on stratigraphy and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of sedimentary basins, new methodologies of collection, storage, and restitution of field data, and new tools for elaboration and construction of geological models starting from 2D geological maps.

P56. Open session on Stratigraphy

Conveners: Piero Gianolla [Università di Ferrara], Cristina Muraro [ISPRA], Antonino Briguglio [Università di Genova], Luca Capraro [Università di Padova], Luca Giusberti [Università di Padova], Patrizia Maiorano [Università di Bari], Luigi Spalluto [Università di Bari]

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The open session on Stratigraphy is organized by the Italian Commission of Stratigraphy (CIS) and welcomes a wide range of contributions from the broad spectrum of the different stratigraphic approaches. The session will therefore bring to the discussion topics of general interest, both on traditional stratigraphic methodologies, on examples of application of new and innovative stratigraphic techniques, and on the interactions that Stratigraphy has with other fields of Geology. We encourage contributions deriving from the ongoing Geological Map of Italy at the scale 1:50,000 - CARG Project.

P57. From the surface to depth and back: the journey of diagenetic fluids up and down sedimentary basins

Conveners: Carlo Bertok [Università di Torino], Maciej Bojanowski [Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland], Marta Gasparrini [Università di Milano], Luca Martire [Università di Torino]

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Fluids accompany sedimentary deposits all over their history (from deposition to deep burial to exhumation) and are continuously flowing through their pore and fracture networks as a response to compaction, convection, tectonic squeezing etc. During these migrations they may dramatically change their physico-chemical properties (temperature, salinity, chemical composition, Eh, pH) and may be charged in base metals and/or liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The domain of diagenesis comprises a wide spectrum of physical, chemical, and biochemical processes, which may affect and significantly transform any kind of sediment and sedimentary rock and are mostly driven by fluids and their circulation patterns. Deciphering such a complex and long-lasting history is often challenging and requires a multi-disciplinary approach involving petrographic, geochemical, thermometric and geochronological investigations. This session welcomes all contributions dealing with diagenetic processes and products in sedimentary rocks, with a special focus on the reconstruction of fluid-flows, and their implications for the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of sedimentary basins, as well as their potential economic significance.

P58. Sustainability of groundwater resources
Hydrogeology Groundwater resources

Conveners: Manuela Lasagna [Università di Torino], Vincenzo Piscopo [Coordinatore Sezione di Idrogeologia, Società Geologica Italiana], Glenda Taddia [Politecnico di Torino]

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Groundwater is a hugely important natural resource for human activities and the maintenance of ecosystems. However, human activities and, more recently, climate change impact on both the quality and quantity of available groundwater. With a view to sustainable development, the use of groundwater resources should meet current and future beneficial uses without causing unacceptable environmental, social and economic consequences. In this context, the session intends to analyse topics related to sustainable groundwater resource development in the complex relationship between water-energy-food and climate change. This session encourages the submissions of all contributions on sustainability of groundwater resources used for drinking, irrigation, industrial and energy supplies. Basic and applied research concerning new approaches and models in the management, conservation and protection of groundwater in rural and urban environments are welcome.
This session is sponsored by IAH – Italian Chapter.

P59. Role of Rare Earth Elements on a sustainable society

Conveners: Sabrina Nazzareni [Università di Perugia], Gabriele Giuli [Università di Camerino], Cristina Carbone [Università di Genova], Patrizia Fumagalli [Università di Milano]

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The Rare Earth Elements distribution is nowadays a primary goal of igneous petrology commonly used to investigate the source signature of rocks, and chemical evolution of rocks. REEs, that recently entered the EU-list of critical elements, are highly demanded for key technologies and strategic sectors as renewable energy, e-mobility, digital, space and defence. Thus a secure and sustainable supply of both primary and secondary REE-materials is one of the pre-requisites to achieve climate neutrality. This session attempts to cover all new research on REE (including Sc and Y) geochemistry, mineralogy and petrology. We thus invite contributions aimed at determination of new natural REE-resources, alternative natural unexploited REE ores, possible new strategy for REE recovery from e-wastes and mine wastes, REE behaviour in igneous and experimental petrology, REE geochemistry. In particular, we wish to promote studies that use a multidisciplinary approach ranging from field observations, experimental investigations to micro and in-situ analyses. We also invite contributions on the developments of novel and advanced experimental, analytical or numerical methods to study physico-chemical properties of REE- and REE-bearing minerals, REE role on igneous processes at mantle and/or crustal level, REE-ore formation including weathering processes.

P60. Shallow geothermal energy: utilisation and environmental sustainability

Conveners: Marco Taussi [Università di Urbino], Alberto Renzulli [Università di Urbino], Alessandro Casasso [Politecnico di Torino]

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The increasing energy demand of buildings, the need to reduce fossil-fuel consumption and the related environmental impacts have stimulated the research in the field of shallow geothermal energy. This renewable energy resource can be exploited with closed-loop heat exchangers or with open-loop well doublets, coupled with a heat pump. Ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) can be applied in many contexts and significantly reduce greenhouse and pollutant emissions for building heating and cooling. However, careful approaches are needed in the development and management of GSHPs to avoid negative impacts and harmful interferences with the underground and groundwater. Consequently, it is of paramount importance to understand possible criticalities in the whole operational life of shallow geothermal systems. Thermal interferences, geochemical, physical and hydrogeological alterations are just some of the possible issues that must be addressed to ensure the protection of groundwater resources. The main purpose of this session is to host recent advancements aimed at a more sustainable shallow geothermal development. The expected contributions are focused on (but not limited to) the definition of geo-exchange potential and on the assessment of possible environmental impacts and other interferences.

P61. Geoscience for the energy system transition and circular economy

Conveners: Sabina Bigi [Universita Roma La Sapienza], Chiara Boschi [CNR Pisa], David Iacopini [Università Federico II Napoli], Valentina Volpi [OGS-Trieste]

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Securing future energy supply is becoming a concern at both, the global and local scales. It will require reducing CO2 emissions via a sustainable energy transition from high-carbon fossil fuels such as oil and coal, towards renewable energy in association with cleaner energy production such as hydrogen To comply with fluctuating energy demands, energy storage in rock caverns and porous rocks in the form of hydrogen is now emerging as a challenging but attractive possibility. Other carbon and capture technologies, such as mineral carbonation in rocks and in alkali-rich materials (fly ash, steel slag, cement, waste materials) can complement our strategy to face the climate challenge toward an economic circularity. In this scientific session we invite any sort of innovative research to improve the current scientific, societal, economic, and environmental knowledge of the energy systems transition associated with or without CCS and CCUS. We also support any contribution looking at (i) regional and local characterization of storage formations ii) reservoir behaviour during Hydrogen or CO2 injection and storage (including modelling and analogue experiments) and their geomechanic risk associated (ii) Mineralogical CCS in rocks and alkali-rich materials. (iii) analysis of natural analogues of Hydrogen, CO2 storage and CO2 mineral sequestration

P62. Innovative strategies for sustainable agriculture and restoration of degraded soils: novel approaches, technologies, and case studies
Geochemistry Mineral resources and Industrial applications

Conveners: Giacomo Ferretti [Università di Ferrara], Paloma Campos Díaz de Mayorga [University of Seville, Spain], Rizki Maftukhah [Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia], Giulio Galamini [Università di Ferrara]

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Intensive farming, as well as mining, are worldwide drivers of soil, water, and atmospheric pollution. In this optic, there is an urgent need to implement sustainable methodologies which help to preserve these fundamental non-renewable environmental resources. The development and evaluation of novel eco-friendly and cost-effective “green” methodologies for the preservation and restoration of these environmental compartments require a multidisciplinary approach encompassing geoscience, agronomy, biology, and engineering. With this session, we aim to focus on the current research and latest advances on a wide spectrum of strategies, including (but not limiting to) the use of minerals (eg. Zeolites, struvite etc.) or organic amendments (biochar, compost etc.) for promoting the more efficient use of nutrients in agriculture (N and P) and for the restoration of degraded soils, covering biological, chemical-physical, biochemical, and environmental aspects. Young researchers and PhD students are encouraged to submit their contributions.Contributions may be focused on: (i) Natural and synthetic sorbents: characterization; adsorption of pollutants; influence on mobility and leaching of target elements in soil and water; (ii) Strategies for mitigating GHG emissions from agricultural soils; (iii) Bioremediation through plants and/or microorganisms; (iv) Valorization and recycling of waste; (v) Examples of field and laboratory experiments; (vi) Effects of bio-geo materials on soil nutrient cycling.

P63. Environmental geology supporting the European Green Deal
Natural Hazards and Risks Mineral resources and Industrial applications

Conveners: Laura Sanna [CNR], Massimiliano Moscatelli [CNR], Mariano Mercurio [Università degli Studi del Sannio]

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The European Green Deal recognises the environment as a source of natural and economic prosperity for Europe’s future. Its priorities include the protection of biodiversity and ecosystems, the reduction of air, water and soil pollution, the transition towards a circular economy, the improvement in waste management and the development of a sustainable blue economy. Environmental geology, with its multidisciplinary field of applied sciences, supports these key areas focusing on the relationships between human activities and the physical environment. The study of this interaction and the related risks is fundamental for improve the health and quality of life of citizens, address environmental problems and for turning environmental challenges into opportunities that make economy environmentally sustainable. This session is intended to examine the progress toward these challenging goals. Contributions that deal with the various aspects of human-environment interaction by means of innovative approaches are welcome, in particular regarding i) impact of resources’ exploitation, ii) assessment of hazardous phenomena, iii) environmental risks’ evaluation, reduction, and management, iv) waste management, v) soil and coastal erosion.

Tectonics and Structural Geology
P64. Evolution of the Variscan crust
Geodynamics Petrology

Conveners: Fabrizio Cocco [Università di Cagliari], Giovanni Luca Cardello [Università di Sassari], Camille Rossignol [Università di Cagliari], Matteo Maino [Università di Pavia], Leonardo Casini [Università di Sassari]

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The Variscan belt is the result of a complex geodynamic history starting in the Cambro-Ordovician with the break-up of Gondwana, rifting, subduction, and ends up with multiple continental collisions and shearing in Carboniferous-Permian times. Several processes contributed to generate the Variscan crust during this long-lasting evolution that ultimately lead to the formation of Pangea. The pre-Variscan evolution is characterized by rifting and subsequent subduction of different terranes and records net crustal growth by magmatic underplating and development of huge, long lasting volcanic arcs. Later, during continental collision and exhumation, the thickened Variscan crust has been affected by various sedimentary, magmatic, and tectono-metamorphic processes. It is worth noting that economically relevant ore deposits formed during all these phases. In this session, we welcome contributions that discuss the evolution of the Variscan crust using different approaches encompassing, but not necessarily limited to, paleontological, stratigraphic, structural, geophysical and petro-chronological methods. Multidisciplinary studies combining one or more of the above methods and analogue or numerical modelling are particularly welcome, as well as studies aiming at unravelling the paleogeographic evolution of the different Variscan terranes and processes controlling the development of relevant orogenic ore deposits.

P65. Faults and shear zones: the pathways for fluids
Fluids & brittle faults Fluids/melts & ductile shear zones

Conveners: Laura Federico [Università di Genova], Matteo Maino [Università di Pavia], Nadia Malaspina [Università di Milano-Bicocca]

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Faults and shear zones are preferred pathways for fluids and the interactions between fluid flow and mylonitic or cataclastic rock network strongly influence the mechanical behavior and rheological properties of the crust. Fluid interaction turns rocks stiffer or weaker and changes their permeability both in space and time. Also, understanding fault hydraulic properties is crucial for studies of fluids migration (including hydrocarbons and CO2). Strain localization in faults or shear zones induces dramatic mineralogical, microstructural and geochemical changes in the host rock during syn-deformation fluid-rock interaction. The understanding of these changes is critical to unravel the processes and the pressure-temperature conditions of deformation. We welcome contributions on the role and behavior of both brittle faults and fracture systems and ductile shear zones during fluid/melt circulation in the crust, based both on regional/case studies and/or recent advances in analytical and experimental characterization of fluid phases and microstructures, along with fluid pathway reconstruction and fluid-rock interaction modelling. We encourage contributions from a broad range of scientists with different backgrounds in tectonics, structural geology, numerical modeling, and petrology, with particular emphasis on new and developing tools able to provide insights on processes driving strain localization and fluid/melt-rock interaction controlling faults and shear zones.

P66. Transversal Tectonic Lines in the Apennines: un updated review on their role for seismicity, magmatism and fluid flow

Conveners: Andrea Brogi [Università di Bari], Domenico Liotta [Università di Bari], Francesco Mirabella [Università di Perugia], PietroPaolo Pierantoni [Università di Camerino]

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"Transversal Tectonic Lines” are regional structures almost orthogonal to the axial trend of the Apennines belt. These tectonic lineaments have been well defined during the 60’s, mainly on the basis of satellite and aerial photographs. In the recent years several studies were carried out to understanding the role of these structures in constraining the Tertiary and Quaternary tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Apennines and Thyrrenian Basin. In this context, the session promotes a wrap-up and discussion on this theme, aiming at collecting contributions from different approaches, on the: (1) geometric and kinematic reconstruction of the “Transversal Tectonic Lines”, with emphasis on their role in controlling the Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Thyrrenian Basin and Apennines belt, both in its inner and outer zones; (2) relationships between these structures and seismicity, along the whole Apennines belt; (3) control exerted on the emplacement of magmatic bodies, circulation of hydrothermal fluids and location of base metal ore deposits.

P67. Faults and shear zones from near the surface to the deep crust: clues from micro-structural analyses, geochronology and geochemistry
Geodynamics Geochemistry

Conveners: Chiara Montemagni [Università di Milano Bicocca], Manuel Curzi [Università di Bologna], Stefania Corvò [Università di Pavia], Alessio Lucca [Università di Parma]

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Constraining the timing of the tectonic events in complex orogenic belts is of crucial importance for the in-depth understanding of their complex building, evolution and seismicity through space and time. Deformation in the crust, commonly assisted by geofluids, is frequently responsible for the development of complex faults and shear zones at different crustal levels and P-T conditions. By coupling multiscale structural analyses, geochronological dating and geochemical tracers on mylonites, fault rocks, and syn-tectonic/syn-kinematic mineralizations it is possible to reconstruct pressure, temperature, time, composition of the system, fluid origin and fluid-rock interaction associated with complex and long-lasting tectonic (and possibly seismic) events. We aim at providing a forum for all disciplines dealing with and contributing to the better understanding of deformations through space and time. This session welcomes multidisciplinary contributions, including structural geology, petrology, geo- and thermo-chronology, geochemistry and basin analysis, addressing the complex evolution of faults and shear zones both for local and regional tectonic reconstructions.

P68. Integrated approaches and techniques for the study of metamorphic basements
Petrology Mineralogy

Conveners: Gabriele Cruciani [Università di Cagliari], Rosolino Cirrincione [Università di Catania], Marcello Franceschelli [Università di Cagliari], Giovanni Musumeci [Università di Pisa]

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The study of metamorphic basements derived from continental crust involves the use of different methodologies: geological and structural survey, mineralogical-petrographic investigation of phases and microstructures, multi-element mapping, isochemical phase diagrams and radiometric dating of minerals. The combined approach and application of these disciplines leads to (i) reconstruct in detail the thermo-mechanical (deformation and metamorphism) evolution of middle-deep crust involved in orogenic systems and (ii) improve the knowledge of the Earth evolution from the Pre-Cambrian to the present. The continuous development of analytical techniques determines a continuous improvement of knowledge about: i) relations between deformation, microstructures, mineralogical associations, inclusions, radiometric ages; ii); thermodynamic databases for more reliable modeling and interpretation; iii) the role of metamorphic re-equilibration on estimated P-T conditions at the pressure and / or temperature peak. In consideration of the continuous development, refinement and evolution of analytical and interpretative techniques, the session aims to attract and present contributions from a wide audience of Earth Sciences researchers whose research activities are directly or indirectly aimed at the study of the tectonic and metamorphic processes recorded in the metamorphic basements and to provide further knowledge relative to the earth's crust rheology.

P69. Mapping crystalline basements: traditional and innovative approaches
Geodynamics Earth observarion and modelling

Conveners: Matteo Simonetti [ISPRA], Martina Zucchi [Università di Bari], Diego Pieruccioni [ISPRA]

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Mapping crystalline basements is difficult due to their polyphased (often transpositive) deformation during the tectono-metamorphic evolution. Furthermore, the emplacement of intrusive bodies and the consequent development of contact aureoles can determine metamorphic processes in the hosting rocks that overprint on previous ones. All those processes affecting metamorphic and magmatic rocks make it difficult for their geometrical reconstruction. For this reason, fieldwork is a basic and unique tool for any kind of investigation which aims to reconstruct the tectono-metamorphic evolution of such settings. A useful approach is the integration of field mapping, also performed with new digital mapping tools (i.e., apps for tablets, digital photogrammetry, 3D modeling), and many other disciplines such as petrology and geochronology. Such an integrative approach contributes to solving issues that cannot be directly resolved from the fieldwork. We welcome contributions based on the geological mapping of metamorphic and igneous rocks overall highlighting (1) how the field mapping can be integrated with information from other disciplines, (2) how new tools can improve data collection and map production, (3) how modern geological maps enhanced the knowledge of complex tectono-metamorphic contexts.

P70. Microstructures: a tool to link grain-scale processes to lithosphere dynamics

Conveners: Alberto Ceccato [Università di Bologna], Francesco Giuntoli [Università di Bologna], Barbara Marchesini [Università di Roma La Sapienza]

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The analysis of rock microstructures provides key information about the metamorphic, metasomatic and grain-scale strain accommodation processes controlling the rheology, mechanics, petrology and petrophysics of the deforming lithosphere. In particular, fossil microstructures provide invaluable insights on how deformation-metamorphism-metasomatism feedback controls strain localisation in the lithosphere, and how these localised deformation structures form channelised pathways for fluid (H2O, CO2, CH4, H2) flow in an otherwise low-permeability lithosphere. Therefore, we need to adopt a multidisciplinary and quantitative approach to the analysis of rock deformation microstructures to improve our understanding of metamorphic and deformation dynamics in the lithosphere. In this session, we invite multidisciplinary contributions focussed on the characterization of microstructural processes and their influence on the rheological, petrological and petrophysical properties of the deforming lithosphere. We particularly appreciate contributions integrating the results of classic petrographic analyses and cutting-edge analytical techniques (e.g. EBSD, EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, SIMS, Raman, FTIR) with experimental rock deformation, petrological and numerical modelling.

P71. Active Normal Faulting Evolution: from long- to short-term up to seismic hazard

Conveners: Riccardo Lanari [Università di Firenze], Lucilla Benedetti [Aix-Marseille University, France], Silvia Crosetto (GFZ), Fabio Corbi [CNR]

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Normal faults develop in several geodynamic environments and within different lithotypes. Their long-term evolution, especially for active faults, has a crucial impact on seismic hazard. The displacement/length ratios, together with the long-term (e.g. total geological throw), mid-term (e.g. morphological throw), and short-term (co-seismic throw) comparisons, describe how faults grow over time. The multiple parameters that are expected to control the fault evolution are still poorly constrained by actual data. Several other aspects are still unknown, such as the role of normal faults in the accommodation of deformation in various geodynamic contexts (e.g. uplift or extension), the amount of footwall exhumation, the link with fluids, the fault zone structure and its link with lithology or with fault maturity. We invite contributions dealing with normal faulting evolution from the long-term to the single seismic event. Multidisciplinary approaches including, for example, detailed field-data analysis at all scales, paleoseismic trenching, stable isotopes, low temperature thermochronology, syn-kinematic U/Pb dating, cosmogenic exposure dating, or analogue/numerical modelling are warmly welcome. We also kindly invite contributions involving studies of normal faulting worldwide and in different geodynamic contexts.

P72. From magma reservoirs to volcanic eruptions: insights from integrated field, experimental, laboratory and modelling studies

Conveners: Fabrizio Di Fiore [Università degli Studi di Roma Tre], Laura Calabrò [Università degli Studi di Roma Tre], Alessio Pontesilli [INGV, Sezione di Roma], Simone Costa [Università di Pisa], Gianmarco Buono [INGV, Sezione di Napoli]

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One of the main goals in volcanology and petrology is to unravel the physico-chemical processes linking architectures and mechanisms acting in volcanic plumbing systems. These processes, which include magma fractionation, crustal assimilation, mixing processes and melt extraction, shearing, decompression, nucleation and growth of crystals and bubbles, fragmentation, take place during magma storage and ascent in polybaric plumbing regions, influencing eruptive activity and emplacement on Earth’s surface. Many efforts have been focused to disentangle the importance of these processes as well as their strictly interdependence. To date, in-situ monitoring and field studies represent the fundamental pillars of our knowledge on natural volcanic systems. Due to the inaccessibility to direct observation for many magmatic processes, new analytical and experimental techniques are continuously developed, broadening our comprehension of plumbing system dynamics through progresses in dataset consistency and accuracy. At the same time, numerical modelling represents an essential tool that can help to shed light on the complex correlations between system parameters and eruptive behavior. In this session, we encourage the volcanological, petrological and geochemical communities to share a broad spectrum of field-, experimental-, and numerical-based research, with the common aim of understanding magma and volcano behavior.

P73. From Micro to Macro - How to unravel the nature of the Large Magmatic Events

Conveners: Massimo Coltorti [Università di Ferrara], Anna Cipriani [Università di Modena], Vincenza Guarino [Università di Napoli], Lorella Francalanci, [Università di Firenze], Alberto Zanetti [CNR - IGG], Manfredo Capriolo [University of Oslo]

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Large magmatic events (LME) represent the most dangerous natural phenomena occurring on Earth and one of the most intriguing topics for petrologists. They are characterized by very rapid eruptions/intrusions of huge amount of mafic/silicic magmas associated with anomalous mantle and crust partial melting events and/or with peculiar magma storage conditions. LME are constituted by oceanic and continental flood basalts, giant continental dyke swarms, mafic and ultramafic intrusive complexes, silicic large igneous provinces and voluminous and caldera-forming, highly explosive eruptions. Notwithstanding these premises, many aspects related to the processes of genesis, storage in the crust and development of the plumbing system for LME are still far from being clearly understood. The session will address i) the volatiles budget released during eruptions and the percentage originated in the mantle through subduction or that resulting from the interaction with crustal material, particularly with organic matter- or S-rich sediments, ii) the way and time such large volume of magma is generated within the mantle and successively iii) emplaced into the crust and iv) how the plumbing system of these eruptions works. These challenging aspects will be particularly addressed by Micro-scale analytical approaches, key contributions associated with traditional methods (field work and petrological analyses).

Open Session
P74. Open Poster Session

Conveners: Rodolfo Carosi [Università di Torino], Daniele Castelli [Università di Torino]

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